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Survival on the Reef (91) More files... by Fred Bavendam
Ecologically, an Indo-Pacific coral reef is an incredible complex place. It is the marine counterpart of a terrestrial tropical rainforest, an ecosystem with a biodiversity unmatched anywhere else in the underwater realm. Survival is key - using camouflage, symbiosis, warning colors and other survival strategies, each in an almost limitless number of permutations that contributes to the biodiversity of life on the coral reef, makes it the oceans richest ecosystem.

Additional text by Fred Bavendam is available.
Reticulated Dascyllus (Dascyllus reticulatus) and several kinds of Cardinalfish hover about a colony of Staghorn Coral, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150087 Reticulated Dascyllus (Dascyllus reticulatus) and several kinds of Cardinalfish hover about a colony of Staghorn Coral, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Reticulated Dasycllus (Dascyllus reticulatus) and several other kinds of small reef fish hover above a colony of Staghorn Coral, Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150092 Reticulated Dasycllus (Dascyllus reticulatus) and several other kinds of small reef fish hover above a colony of Staghorn Coral, Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Fire Urchin (Asthenosoma varium) detail showing the colors and pattern of spines on its surface, Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150160 Fire Urchin (Asthenosoma varium) detail showing the colors and pattern of spines on its surface, Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Banded Tozeuma Shrimp (Tozeuma armatum) lives on Black Coral (Antipathes sp) where its elongate shape and coloration make it very difficult to discern, Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150161 Banded Tozeuma Shrimp (Tozeuma armatum) lives on Black Coral (Antipathes sp) where its elongate shape and coloration make it very difficult to discern, Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Wide-barred Shrimpgoby (Amblyeleotris latifasciata) keeps watch while its Tiger Snapping Shrimp (Alpheus bellulus) works on their shared burrow, Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150164 Wide-barred Shrimpgoby (Amblyeleotris latifasciata) keeps watch while its Tiger Snapping Shrimp (Alpheus bellulus) works on their shared burrow, Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Spotted Shrimpgoby (Amblyeleotris guttata) sharing a burrow with a Snapping Shrimp (Alpheus sp), Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150165 Spotted Shrimpgoby (Amblyeleotris guttata) sharing a burrow with a Snapping Shrimp (Alpheus sp), Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Allied Cowrie (Diminovula stigma) living on a Soft Coral (Dendronephthya sp) host, Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150166 Allied Cowrie (Diminovula stigma) living on a Soft Coral (Dendronephthya sp) host, Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Cowry living on Sea Fan (Solenocaulon sp), Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150167 Cowry living on Sea Fan (Solenocaulon sp), Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Coleman's Shrimp (Periclimenes colemani) pair living among the spines of a Fire Urchin (Asthenosoma varium), Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150168 Coleman's Shrimp (Periclimenes colemani) pair living among the spines of a Fire Urchin (Asthenosoma varium), Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea© Fred Bavendam
Rosewater's Ovulid (Primovula rosewateri) living on a Gorgonian Coral host, Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150169 Rosewater's Ovulid (Primovula rosewateri) living on a Gorgonian Coral host, Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Allied Cowry (Phenacovolva gracilis) pair living on a colony of Black Coral (Antipathes sp), Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150170 Allied Cowry (Phenacovolva gracilis) pair living on a colony of Black Coral (Antipathes sp), Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Allied Cowry (Phenacovolva gracilis) living on a colony of Black Coral (Antipathes sp), Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150171 Allied Cowry (Phenacovolva gracilis) living on a colony of Black Coral (Antipathes sp), Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Hump Coral (Porites sp) colony, part of it exhibiting bleaching which occurs when a coral expels its Zooxanthellae possibly due to heat stress, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150179 Hump Coral (Porites sp) colony, part of it exhibiting bleaching which occurs when a coral expels its Zooxanthellae possibly due to heat stress, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Hump Coral (Porites sp) colony, part of it exhibiting bleaching which occurs when a coral expels its Zooxanthellae possibly due to heat stress, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150180 Hump Coral (Porites sp) colony, part of it exhibiting bleaching which occurs when a coral expels its Zooxanthellae possibly due to heat stress, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Bigeye Trevally (Caranx sexfasciatus) school, Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150188 Bigeye Trevally (Caranx sexfasciatus) school, Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Bigeye Trevally (Caranx sexfasciatus) school, Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150189 Bigeye Trevally (Caranx sexfasciatus) school, Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Oxeye Scad (Selar boops) school, Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150191 Oxeye Scad (Selar boops) school, Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Oxeye Scad (Selar boops) school, Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150192 Oxeye Scad (Selar boops) school, Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Oxeye Scad (Selar boops) school, Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150193 Oxeye Scad (Selar boops) school, Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Clown Anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris) among the tentacles of a Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica), Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150204 Clown Anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris) among the tentacles of a Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica), Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Clown Anemonefish (Amphiprion percula) in Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) tentacles, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia
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00150205 Clown Anemonefish (Amphiprion percula) in Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) tentacles, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia© Fred Bavendam
Leafy Sea Dragon (Phycodurus eques) camouflaged to look like a piece of aquatic vegetation, Edithburgh, South Australia, Australia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150249 Leafy Sea Dragon (Phycodurus eques) camouflaged to look like a piece of aquatic vegetation, Edithburgh, South Australia, Australia© Fred Bavendam
Spotted Wobbegong (Orectolobus maculatus) shark, close-up, underwater, Forster-Tuncurry, New South Wales, Australia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150370 Spotted Wobbegong (Orectolobus maculatus) shark, close-up, underwater, Forster-Tuncurry, New South Wales, Australia© Fred Bavendam
Striped Catfish (Plotosus lineatus) form dense schools for protection from predators, Forster-Tuncurry, New South Wales, Australia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150507 Striped Catfish (Plotosus lineatus) form dense schools for protection from predators, Forster-Tuncurry, New South Wales, Australia© Fred Bavendam
Harlequin Ghost Pipefish (Solenostomus paradoxus) portrait, side view, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150563 Harlequin Ghost Pipefish (Solenostomus paradoxus) portrait, side view, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Short-snouted Seahorse (Hippocampus breviceps) with two parasitic isopods clinging to its head, Edithburgh, South Australia, Australia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150618 Short-snouted Seahorse (Hippocampus breviceps) with two parasitic isopods clinging to its head, Edithburgh, South Australia, Australia© Fred Bavendam
Copper Rockfish (Sebastes caurinus), Carmel, California  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150644 Copper Rockfish (Sebastes caurinus), Carmel, California© Fred Bavendam
Papuan Scorpionfish (Scorpaenopsis papuensis) camouflaged among corals, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150672 Papuan Scorpionfish (Scorpaenopsis papuensis) camouflaged among corals, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Sponge Crab (Austrodromidia octodentata) wearing a Hat of Leach's Compound Ascidian (Botrylloides leachi) instead of a Sponge, South Australia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150701 Sponge Crab (Austrodromidia octodentata) wearing a Hat of Leach's Compound Ascidian (Botrylloides leachi) instead of a Sponge, South Australia© Fred Bavendam
Sponge Crab (Austrodromidia octodentata) wearing a hat of yellow sponge for camouflage, Edithburgh, South Australia, Australia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150704 Sponge Crab (Austrodromidia octodentata) wearing a hat of yellow sponge for camouflage, Edithburgh, South Australia, Australia© Fred Bavendam
Russell's Lionfish (Pterois russelli) underwater portrait, Lembeh Strait, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150794 Russell's Lionfish (Pterois russelli) underwater portrait, Lembeh Strait, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Zebra Lionfish (Dendrochirus zebra), Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150807 Zebra Lionfish (Dendrochirus zebra), Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Common Lionfish (Pterois volitans) lurking among Feather Star Crinoids clinging to the lip of a large Barrel Sponge, Bali, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150809 Common Lionfish (Pterois volitans) lurking among Feather Star Crinoids clinging to the lip of a large Barrel Sponge, Bali, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Common Lionfish (Pterois volitans) has bold stripes to warn predators of its venomous spines, Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150810 Common Lionfish (Pterois volitans) has bold stripes to warn predators of its venomous spines, Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea© Fred Bavendam
Beaufort's Crocodilefish (Cymbacephalus beauforti) camouflaged on coral, Lembeh Strait, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00150828 Beaufort's Crocodilefish (Cymbacephalus beauforti) camouflaged on coral, Lembeh Strait, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Diagonal-banded Sweetlips (Plectorhinchus lineatus) school, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151009 Diagonal-banded Sweetlips (Plectorhinchus lineatus) school, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia© Fred Bavendam
Yellowfin Goatfish (Mulloidichthys vanicolensis) often gather in large schools during the day and disperse at night to feed, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151021 Yellowfin Goatfish (Mulloidichthys vanicolensis) often gather in large schools during the day and disperse at night to feed, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia© Fred Bavendam
Pink Anemonefish (Amphiprion perideraion) nestled among the tentacles of its Sea Anemone host, Coral Sea, Queensland, Australia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151158 Pink Anemonefish (Amphiprion perideraion) nestled among the tentacles of its Sea Anemone host, Coral Sea, Queensland, Australia© Fred Bavendam
Pink Anemonefish (Amphiprion perideraion) nestled among the tentacles of its Sea Anemone host, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151162 Pink Anemonefish (Amphiprion perideraion) nestled among the tentacles of its Sea Anemone host, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia© Fred Bavendam
Dusky Anemonefish (Amphiprion latezonatus) living with a Bulb Tentacle Sea Anemone (Entacmaea quadricolor), Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151170 Dusky Anemonefish (Amphiprion latezonatus) living with a Bulb Tentacle Sea Anemone (Entacmaea quadricolor), Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Clark's Anemonefish (Amphiprion clarkii) nestled in Anemone, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151177 Clark's Anemonefish (Amphiprion clarkii) nestled in Anemone, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Saddleback Anemonefish (Amphiprion polymnus) living with Haddon's Sea Anemone (Stichodactyla haddoni) note Red Anemonefish eggs on rock in front of Sea Anemone, Papua New Guinea  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151189 Saddleback Anemonefish (Amphiprion polymnus) living with Haddon's Sea Anemone (Stichodactyla haddoni) note Red Anemonefish eggs on rock in front of Sea Anemone, Papua New Guinea© Fred Bavendam
Orange-fin Anemonefish (Amphiprion chrysopterus) pair with Sea Anemone, Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151197 Orange-fin Anemonefish (Amphiprion chrysopterus) pair with Sea Anemone, Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea© Fred Bavendam
Spine-cheek Anemonefish (Premnas biaculeatus) lives only with the Bulb Tentacle Sea Anemone (Entacmaea quadricolor), Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151211 Spine-cheek Anemonefish (Premnas biaculeatus) lives only with the Bulb Tentacle Sea Anemone (Entacmaea quadricolor), Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea© Fred Bavendam
Blue-striped Fangblenny (Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos), Queensland, Australia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151301 Blue-striped Fangblenny (Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos), Queensland, Australia© Fred Bavendam
Whitemargin Stargazer (Uranoscopus sulphureus) lying buried in the sand waiting for prey, Lembeh Strait, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151403 Whitemargin Stargazer (Uranoscopus sulphureus) lying buried in the sand waiting for prey, Lembeh Strait, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Flowery Flounder (Bothus mancus) camouflaged against Coral, Lembeh Strait, Indonesia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151436 Flowery Flounder (Bothus mancus) camouflaged against Coral, Lembeh Strait, Indonesia© Fred Bavendam
Guineafowl Pufferfish (Arothron meleagris) in its golden color phase puffed up, side view, Tower Island, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151484 Guineafowl Pufferfish (Arothron meleagris) in its golden color phase puffed up, side view, Tower Island, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador© Fred Bavendam
Guineafowl Pufferfish (Arothron meleagris) in its golden color phase puffed up off of Tower Island, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151485 Guineafowl Pufferfish (Arothron meleagris) in its golden color phase puffed up off of Tower Island, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador© Fred Bavendam
Porcupinefish (Diodon nicthemerus) swallows water to puff itself up and points its spines outward as a defense against predators, South Australia  -  Fred Bavendam
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00151495 Porcupinefish (Diodon nicthemerus) swallows water to puff itself up and points its spines outward as a defense against predators, South Australia© Fred Bavendam
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